Beyond Aryan Khan case: Are WhatsApp chats admissible as evidence in court?

The Mumbai cruise medication case has introduced WhatsApp chats in focus in phrases of their authorized worth in a court docket of regulation. Lawyer Ali Kashif Khan, counsel for mannequin Munmun Dhamecha — a kind of arrested by the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) in the case together with actor Shah Rukh Khan’s son Aryan Khan — mentioned on Tuesday that the WhatsApp chats weren’t admissible in court docket.

Munmun Dhamecha’s lawyer mentioned, “Witnesses turning hostile will have an impact on the NBC’s case. At today’s hearing, we expect a reply from the NCB.” He was referring to the bail listening to for Aryan Khan scheduled in the Bombay High Court on Tuesday.

His assertion isn’t incorrect however addresses solely part of the query: Are WhatsApp chats admissible as evidence in court docket? The brief reply could be each “yes” and “no”.


In July this yr, the Supreme Court made a big commentary that messages exchanged on social media platforms had no evidential worth. It mentioned that the creator of such WhatsApp messages couldn’t be tied to them, particularly in enterprise partnerships ruled by agreements.

The concern associated to a Concession Agreement signed in 2016, based on a Times of India report, between the South Delhi Municipal Corporation (SDMC) and a consortium comprising A2Z Infraservices and one other agency for assortment and disposal of waste supplies. A2Z signed one other settlement with one other agency and later terminated the contract.

The different firm in 2017 moved the Calcutta High Court, which admitted a WhatsApp chat message, to move an antagonistic order in opposition to the A2Z, which had challenged the WhatsApp message as solid. The order additionally impacted the SDMC. The matter reached the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court bench headed by Chief justice of India NV Ramana and in addition comprising Justices AS Bopanna and Hrishikesh Roy heard the matter when it made the commentary: “What is evidential value of WhatsApp messages these days? Anything can be created and deleted on social media these days. We don’t attach any value to the WhatsApp messages.”

The Supreme Court discovered that the Calcutta High Court erred in admitting the mentioned WhatsApp chat as evidence.

But this doesn’t essentially imply that the Supreme Court rejected WhatsApp chat messages as evidence altogether. WhatsApp chat messages type digital evidence and can be utilized as corroborative evidence.


There is a regulation referred to as the Evidence Act, whose Sections 62 and 63 discuss Primary and Secondary evidence. Primary evidence is a few doc or factor that’s produced earlier than the court docket in authentic for inspection. Secondary evidence is licensed copies of the unique doc or oral accounts of the contents of the unique.

Then there may be one other regulation referred to as the Information Technology Act. Its Section 2 defines “electronic record”. Electronic document is admissible as evidence in court docket as per legal guidelines.

Electronic document is knowledge, document or knowledge generated, picture or sound saved, acquired or despatched in an digital type or microfilm or computer-generated microfiche.


WhatsApp messages could also be accepted by a court docket as secondary evidence. Section 65B lays out 4 major situations for admitting digital data as evidence in a court docket. These are:

1. The laptop/gadget used to provide/create the message will need to have been in common use when the individual having lawful management over that laptop/gadget produced the message;

2. The info/message ought to be of such variety that it’s usually and ordinarily used in such exercise;

3. The laptop/gadget will need to have been functioning correctly on the time when the message was produced, and

4. The info contained in the duplicate copy produced earlier than the court docket have to be the identical as the unique digital document.

If these 4 situations are fulfilled, WhatsApp chats could possibly be admitted as evidence in the court docket. It was on the idea of those 4 situations that it was held that the digital evidence was admissible in the State of Delhi v. Mohd Afzal case, generally identified as the Parliament Attack case.


What could possibly be seen as a landmark judgment delivered by the Supreme Court in this regard got here in January 2020 in the case of “Ambalal Sarabhai Enterprise Ltd versus KS Infraspace LLP Limited and Another”. The Supreme Court dominated that “the WhatsApp messages that are digital verbal communications are a matter of evidence” subject to “cumulative deciphering” of the content contained in the messages.

“The WhatsApp messages, that are digital verbal communications, are issues of evidence with regard to their which means and its contents to be proved throughout trial by evidence­ in ­chief and cross-examination. The e­mails and WhatsApp messages should be learn and understood cumulatively to decipher whether or not there was a concluded contract or not,” mentioned the Supreme Court in the case that noticed senior legal professionals Abhishek Manu Singhvi and Kapil Sibal showing for the plaintiff and the defendant, respectively.

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